Continuous Pressing with expellers:
- The device used for this purpose is referred to as “worm press”, in which the shaft is in the shape of a continuous worm drive that ﬁts horizontally inside the press.
- In order to increase the pressure while material is being passed through the press and to compensate for any pressure loss, the diameter of the worm housing tapers gradually in the direction of travel.
- The worm normally consists of several segments, with varying pitches and shapes, allowing the press to adapt to different nuts.
All by mechanical expression, no solvents are ever used at Caloy.
Degumming & Chemical Neutralization:
- Degumming is necessary because crude oils contain substances that encourage hydrolytic and oxidative lipolysis.
- During Degumming, proteins and phospholipids are precipitated.
- The separation of the gums and soapstock from the oil phase is accomplished by centrifuge.
- By nature, oils and fats contain pigments, chieﬂy carotenes and chlorophylls along with trace metals.
- A substantial proportion of these pigments are removed during degumming and deodorization.
- The oil is heated and the necessary quantity of bleaching earth is blended in.
- Once it has time to act the bleaching agent is separated from the oil by ﬁltration.
- The process of winterization is vital for keeping oils clear and brilliant at reduced temperatures or extended storage times.
- The partial crystallization of the oil by lowering the temperature and filtering the solids from the liquid phase.
- Final purification of the oil is accomplished by distillation at elevated temperatures and low pressure to remove free fatty acids.
- The oil is then rapidly cooled, pumped into a storage tank and stored under an inert gas.